Keratin Pearl vs Psammoma Bodies

Keratin Pearl vs Psammoma Bodies an Overview

Keratin Pearls are keratinized structures that create concentric layers of aberrant squamous cells. This sort of structure, also known as an epithelial pearl, is sometimes associated with squamous cell carcinoma due to its placement among squamous cells of the epithelium. Keratinization, also known as cornification, is a cytodifferentiation process that keratinocytes go through as they transition from their own post-germinative state to a differentiated, hardened cell filled with protein, forming a functionally as well as functionally differentiated keratin-containing cell. While; Psammoma Bodies (PBs) are concentric lamellated calcified formations that are most typically seen in papillary thyroid carcinoma (PTC), meningioma, and papillary serous cystadenocarcinoma of the ovary but have been documented in other neoplasms and nonneoplastic diseases on rare occasions.

Squamous cell contains Keratin Pearls. Squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) is just a non-glandular epithelium tumor made up of large epithelial cells having intercellular bridges with keratin production that can form pearls and single keratinized cells. Whereas; Psammoma Bodies are circular lamellated formations seen in papillary thyroid cancer, meningioma, and ovarian papillary serous cystadenocarcinoma. Foam cells can be found in verruciform xanthoma.

Cause & Formation:

The Keratin Pearls are formed when there is a loss of cohesiveness among epithelial cells owing to malignant alterations, the cells become concentric. Because squamous cells are keratin-producing cells, they lay down keratin inside a concentric pattern, resulting in malignant keratin pearls. Keratinization refers to cytoplasm processes that take place in non-neuronal epidermal keratinocytes.

It comprises the production of keratin polypeptides plus their polymerization from keratin intermediate filaments. Whereas; Psammoma Bodies have a papillary (nipple-like) histomorphology and they are hypothesized to be caused by infarction and calcification of papillae tips and intralymphatic tumor thrombi calcification.

Psammoma bodies are spherical calcific aggregates that really are small in size. A kind of calcification is dystrophic calcification. The focal point again for surrounding calcific deposits is necrotic cells. They have a lamellated concentric calcification morphology that may be seen on CT scans.

Fig.1 shows the keratin pearl with the keratinized area and Fig. 2 shows psammoma bodies with whorls.

Keratin Pearl with keratinized area

 

Psammoma Bodies with whorls

 

Cancer-Causing:

In Keratin Pearl, Squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) causes cancer that is a non-glandular epithelial tumour formed of large epithelial cells with intercellular bridges and keratin synthesis, which can take the shape of pearls or single keratinized cells. Because the tumour develops slowly, it enlarges and compresses the brain gradually. A “Pearl tumour” is so named because it appears glittering white inside the operating room, similar to a pearl. Although the aspiration may remove white keratinocytes material, it may return unless the skim layer is completely eliminated. Rough, uneven, notched, and fuzzy margins.

The color is not consistent and may include brown or black hues as well as spots including pink, red, white, and blue. The region is larger than 14 inches across, roughly the diameter of the a pencil eraser, although melanomas could be smaller. Whereas; Psammoma Bodies have been detected in a number of malignancies.

They are frequently used to diagnose papillary thyroid carcinoma (PTC), the most prevalent kind of thyroid cancer. Individuals with PTC who have psammoma bodies are more likely to have lymph node metastasis (spread of malignant growth) and high stage cancer than those who do not have psammoma bodies.

PTC and other thyroid cancers are frequently identified via fine-needle aspiration (FNA), which involves removing a sample of cells from the thyroid gland at the front of the neck using a little hollow needle. Psammoma bodies are frequently seen in papillary serous cystadenocarcinoma of the ovary, the most common kind of malignant ovarian cancer.

Localized Statement:

The Keratin Pearl follow the pathway where the SCC tumor is more likely to be malignant. Grading of SCC depends on how easy it is to recognise the characteristics of squamous epithelium (eg. intracellular bridges, keratinisation), pleomorphism and mitotic activity. There is considerable interobserver variation in grading SCC. Whereas; Psammoma Bodies may be discovered in organs such as the thyroid, ovaries, endometrium, and the lining of the central nervous system.

They are seen in both malignant and benign tumours and can also be an indicator of persistent inflammation. Non-cancerous disorders containing psammoma bodies include benign ovarian tumours, cervical polyps, or growths on the cervical canal linking the uterus and vagina. They may also have endometriosis, a condition in which the tissue lining the uterus develops outside of the uterus.

Psammoma bodies can also be detected in meningiomas, which are tumours that grow on the meninges (the membrane that covers the brain and spinal cord inside the skull). Fig.3 shows the representation of keratin perals with the consiquents of the skin cells and Fig.4 shows the representation of psammoma bodies on human body.

Representation of Keratin Pearl

 

 

 Representation of Psammoma Bodie

 

Reference:

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/medgen/137711

https://medical-dictionary.thefreedictionary.com/keratin+pearl

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