Equipment Used in Pathology

5 Important Equipment Used in Pathology

As you know the study of the nature and causes of illnesses is the focus of the medical discipline known as pathology. It serves as the foundation for all medical practices, including cutting-edge genetic research, blood transfusion techniques, and chronic illness monitoring. Every cancer must be diagnosed using pathology. So there are 5 important Equipment Used in Pathology by the pathologist out of which some main equipment are discussed below:-

01. Flow cytometry

Flow cytometry

Most frequently used for analyzing peripheral blood, bone marrow, and other bodily fluids, flow cytometry offers a tried-and-true approach to detecting cells in solution. Studies using flow cytometry are used to define hematological malignancies and detect and count immune cells. They’re able to gauge

  • Cell size
  • Granularity of cells
  • Whole DNA
  • Fresh synthetic
  • Gene expression in DNA
  • Cutaneous receptors
  • Internalized proteins
  • Momentary signal

One of the main benefits of the flow cytometric method is the ability to do these measurements in a short amount of time. In less than a minute, they can measure up to three to six features or components in a single sample, cell by cell, for around 10,000 cells.

Among the most common applications employed in the range of contemporary clinical settings, both therapeutic and research-oriented, are the following:

  • expression of proteins—in the nucleus as well as the rest of the cell
  • Claimed and phosphorylated proteins are examples of post-translational changes of proteins
  • RNA, which includes transcripts of both miRNA and mRNA
  • detection of apoptosis or cell death—status of the cell
  • Cell cycle status is a strong tool for comparing cells in the G0/G1 phase to those in the S phase, G2 phase, or polyploidy, as well as for analyzing cell proliferation.

02. Organ Bath or Dale’s Apparatus

Organ Bath

The organ bath which is commonly known as Dale’s apparatus is the traditional pharmacological screening method for evaluating concentration-response correlations in contractile tissue is an isolated organ bath experiment. The organ bath assay is still regarded as a powerful method for lead optimization and for elucidating the mechanism of action, even though a range of molecular tools have become available in recent decades to examine cellular responses in high-throughput volumes. Organ bath tests are furthermore often utilized in preclinical safety assessments. ​

The organ bath assay is most frequently used in cardiovascular studies, when isolated aortic rings, heart tissue (papillary muscle, left ventricles), or arteries are used. Preparations of the ileum and colon are frequently employed for researching gastrointestinal effects, although the gastric antral muscle and sphincter may also be investigated.

In isolated tracheal rings, phrenic diaphragm preparations, pulmonary arterial smooth muscle, and even lung parenchyma, respiratory effects can be examined. Urinary bladder, penile muscle strips, and prostate are additional smooth muscle preparations that are utilized in organ bath research.

03. Sahli Hemoglobinometer

Sahli Hemoglobinometer

Blood is dissolved in potassium cyanide and potassium ferricyanide solution. Hb is changed into methemoglobin by potassium ferricyanide, which is then changed into cyanmethemoglobin (HiCN) by potassium cyanide. The solution’s absorbance is then calculated in a spectrophotometer using a wavelength of 540 nm. A yellow-green filter may be used to measure it in a colorimeter as well.

Hemoglobin is changed into brown-colored acid hematin by combining blood with an acidic solution in hemoglobin estimation. This is diluted with water until it is the same shade of brown as the brown glass standard. The scale is used to immediately read the hemoglobin levels. The major benefit of this method is that it is inexpensive and may be used to estimate hemoglobin levels when an automated haematology analyzer is not available. To perform, no technical knowledge is required.

04. Hemocytometer

Hemocytometer image

Hemocytometer is also one of the Equipment Used in Pathology. An instrument used for manual cell counting is a hemocytometer, sometimes known as a hemocytometer or a cell counting chamber. The hemocytometer was created initially for counting blood cells, as its name suggests. Hemocytometers are now utilized in a variety of applications to count the total number of cells and assess the viability of many distinct cell types. A hemocytometer is a particular slide used for microscopic cell counts. Hemocytometers come in a number of varieties, each having a unique counting grid. The “Improved Neubauer” chamber is the one that is most frequently utilized.

You need to make certain preparations before you start using your hemocytometer to count cells. Take a representative sample of your cell population to get started. By pipetting the solution several times up and down before obtaining your sample, you can be sure it is representative. A dye exclusion test may be used to ascertain both the viability of your cells and the overall cell count.

In order to do this, your cells must be stained with a dye that can distinguish between live and non-viable cells. Trypan blue, propidium iodide, erythrosine B, acridine orange, and 4′,6-diamidino-2-phenylindole dihydrochloride are some regularly used stains (DAPI).

05. Wintrobe Tube

Wintrobe Tube in pathology

A 110-mm-long, thin glass tube known as a Wintrobe tube with graduations that range from 0-100 mm in both ascending and descending order. The “micro-hematocrit” method, which substitutes a tiny capillary tube for a Wintrobe hematocrit tube, has replaced this approach. Both the amount of blood needed and the amount of time needed for the test is reduced. It helps patients for whom blood collection is challenging. The test’s basic principles are still the same as those of the “macro-hematocrit” approach, though. Check more pathology articles here

The lengths of the packed RBC layer are divided by the total length of the cells and plasma to calculate HCT. It has no unit because it is a ratio. It may be multiplied by 100 to obtain the precise number, which is the preferred reporting format for HCT. A normal adult male shows an HCT of 40-54 percent while an adult female shows 36-48 percent HCT.

Note: in the blog post we try to cover tools used in pathology by a pathologist during the diagnosis of different diseases. There is much other equipment used in pathology. We shall try to update this blog post time by time.

 

References:

https://www.mcgill.ca/pathology/about/definition
https://my.clevelandclinic.org/health/diagnostics/22086-flow-cytometry
https://www.abcam.com/protocols/introduction-to-flow-cytometry
https://www.dmt.dk/tissue.html

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